The engineered release of Si, Ca and P ions from NovaBone results in the stimulation of families of genes that are known to be critical in the repair and regeneration of bone tissue.  This process, unique to NovaBone as a synthetic bone graft material, is defined as osteostimulation.

Osteostimulation leads to a catalytic response that accelerates the natural healing process so that bone regeneration is fast and reliable.

NovaBone’s formulation is engineered to react and release ions as soon as it is exposed to an osseous defect. When implanted, it delivers a controlled release of ions over time that enhance cell signaling.
 
Within hours of implantation, Ca and P ions, along with soluble silica, are released forming a silica-gel and hydroxycarbonate apatite layer creating an ideal environment for cellular attachment and for protein and growth factor absorption.
 
The formation of the reaction layers and the absorption of these organic molecules results in the signaling and recruitment of osteoprogenitor cells (mesenchymal stem cells) to the site and their early attachment and proliferation at the material surface.
 
The continued Ca and Si ion release modulates the differentiation of the cells, resulting in a population of osteoblasts and precursor cells that have the potential to become bone forming cells, ultimately upregulating the bone forming process.
 
This bone formation continues on an accelerated path as multiple families of genes directly involved with the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and precursor cells are regulated:

Transcription factors – direct stem cells to osteoblasts

Growth factors (IGF-II, VEGF) – direct osteoblast mitosis

DNA synthesis and repair – correct cell synthesis

Apoptosis regulators – control cell death; regulate functional osteoblasts

Cell surface antigens (CD44) - control osteocyte differentiation

 
This accelerated early healing response results in bone formation on NovaBone surfaces at rates equivalent to autograft, with particle absorption keeping pace with bone remodeling.
 
The cumulative effect is an increase number of cells capable of dividing and forming new bone and healing tissue.
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